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Harvard Style

This guide shows how to use the Harvard style of referencing

Reference Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List


(Corporate author)

(Economic and Social Research Institute [ESRI] 2019)

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 2019. ESRI Research Strategy 2019-2023. Dublin: ESRI.

The first time you mention the author in this example in the in-text citation, put in 'Economic and Social Research Institute [ESRI]. In subsequent citations to this in your assignment, you can use the abbreviation i.e. ESRI 2019.


(1 author)

(Sheppard 2011)

SHEPPARD, G., 2011. Management accounting: a practical approach. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.


(2 or 3 authors)

(McLaney and Atrill 2020)

MCLANEY, E.J. & ATRILL, P., 2020. Accounting and finance: an introduction. 10th ed. London: Pearson.


(4 or more authors)
(Moore et al. 2010) MOORE, S., NEVILLE, C., MURPHY, M. & CONNOLLY, C., 2010. The Ultimate Study Skills Handbook. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Book Chapter

(with author)
(Lowman 2019)

LOWMAN, R., 2019. 'Ethics and Assessment Centres'. In: SCHLEBUSCH, S. & ROODT, G. (eds.), Assessment  Centres: Unlocking People Potential for Growth. 2nd ed. Randburg: KR Publishing, pp. 61-76.

Book Chapter

(No author)
(Direct current circuits 1999, p. 19) ‘Direct current circuits’, 1999.  In: Browne, A. (ed.) College physics. New York: Chandos, pp. 42-47.
Book (editor) (Roy 2007)

Roy, P. (ed.), 2007.  Maths & stats. London: MacMillan.

Blog (Hanley 2020)

HANLEY, M., 2020. 'Winter Solstice at Newgrange, Ireland'. E-Learning curve blog [blog]. 21 December. Available from: [Viewed 30 April 2021].

Company Report (Electric Ireland 2019)

ELECTRIC IRELAND, 2019. Powering the Transition to a clean energy future: ESB Annual Report and Financial Statements 2019 [Online]. Available from: [Viewed 30 April 2021].

Conference paper (book) (Bowers and Koomar 2017)

BOWERS, J. & KOOMAR, P., 2017. 'Use of iPads to support group work in the classroom'. In: BAAB, B.F., BANSAVICH, J., SOULELES, N. & LOIZIDES, F. (eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Use of IPads in Higher Education. 16-18 March 2016, San Francisco. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 79-84.

Conference Paper (Internet) (Makandar and Patrot 2017)

MAKANDAR, A. & PATROT, A., 2017. 'Malware class recognition using image processing techniques'. 2017 International Conference on Data Management, Analytics and Innovation (ICDMAI) [Online]. 24-26 February 2017, Pune, India.

Conference Paper (Journal) (Gouveia, McGarraghy and Brugha 2021) GOUVEIA, L., MCGARRAGHY, S. & BRUGHA, C.M., 2021. 'Feature Cluster: Proceedings of the Thirtieth European Conference on Operational Research (EURO 2019) Introduction'. European Journal of Operational Research, 291 (3), June, pp. 807-807.
Conference Presentation (Hussain 2019)

HUSSAIN, A., 2019. 'The creative case for diversity', In: Places Matter Conference 2019. 27-28 March 2019, Galway. Available from: [Viewed 4 May 2021].

Dataset (Health Service Executive 2017)

HEALTH SERVICE EXECUTIVE, 2017. List of Pharmacies in Ireland, [Dataset]. Available from: [Viewed 4 May 2021].

Dictionary or Encyclopaedia (Sommer and Schoenfeld 2019)

SOMMER, W. & SCHOENFELD, H.M., 2019. 'Absentee'. In: Management Dictionary: English-German. Berlin: De Gruyter, p. 14.


(with DOI)
(Dukelow and Considine 2017)

DUKELOW, F. and CONSIDINE, M., 2017. Irish social policy: a critical introduction. 2nd ed. [Online]. Bristol: Bristol University Press.


(with URL)
(Iyer 2021)

IYER, N., 2021. Everyday Superfoods [Online]. London: Bloomsbury India. Available from: [Viewed 4 May 2021].

EU Directive This issue is covered in 'Council directive 2020/1151/EU' (2020).... 'Council Directive (EU) 2020/1151 amending Directive 92/83/EEC on the harmonization of the structures of excise duties on alcohol and alcoholic beverages' 2020 Official Journal L256, pp. 1-10.
Exhibition Catalogue (Chester Beatty 2020)

CHESTER BEATTY, 2020. Thai Buddhist Tales [exhibition catalogue]. Exhibition held at the Chester Beatty Library, 14 June 2019 - 26 January 2020. Dublin: Chester Beatty Library.

Facebook (WEEE Ireland 2021)

WEEE IRELAND, 2021. When Click & Collecting, don’t forget to bring your old appliances to your local electrical retailer for recycling. It’s Free. [Facebook]. 25 March. Available from: [Viewed 6 May 2021].

Film (Little Women 2019)

Little Women, 2019 [Film]. Directed by Greta Gerwig. USA: Columbia Pictures.

Government    Publication (Department of Health 2021)

IRELAND. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, 2021. Right Care, Right Place, Right Time - Alternative Pathways. Dublin: Stationery Office. Available from: [Viewed 4 May 2021].

Illustrations, figures, diagrams, logos and tables

Finnegan (2021, p. 8) shows the results distribution for the quiz following online delivery.

FINNEGAN, M., 2021. Results following online delivery [fig.]. 'The Impact on Student Performance and Experience of the Move from F2F to Online Delivery in Response to COVID-19: A case study in an Irish Higher Education Institute'. All Ireland Journal of Higher Education, 13 (1), pp. 1-23. Available from: [Viewed 5 May 2021].

Image, illustration, photo or table (online) (MacEntee 2015) MACENTEE, S., 2015. Galway [Photograph]. Flickr. Available from: 
[Viewed 11 January 2021].
Instagram (Burnell 2019)

BURNELL, N.J., 2019. More soft light from Haldon Forest [Photograph]. 26 November. Available from: [Viewed 22 March 2021].

Journal Article

(O’Meara, Prendergast and Treacy 2020) O'MEARA, N., PRENDERGAST, M. & TREACY, P., 2020. 'What's the point? Impact of Ireland's bonus points initiative on student profile in mathematics classrooms'. Issues in Educational Research, 30 (4), pp. 1418-1441.

Journal Article

(Gourlay 2021) GOURLAY, L., 2021. 'There is no 'virtual learning': the materiality of Digital Education'. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research [Online], 10 (1), January, pp. 57-66. Available from: [Viewed 5 May 2021].
Journal Article (Database with DOI) (Kenny and Lennard 2018) KENNY, S. & LENNARD, J., 2018. 'Monetary aggregates for Ireland, 1840–1921'. Economic History Review [Online], 71 (4), pp. 1249-1269.
Journal Article (uses Article Numbers) (Fuente et al 2020) FUENTE, M., LONG, S., FENTON, D., HUNG, L.C., GOGGINS, J. & FOLEY, M., 2020. 'Review of recent radon research in Ireland, OPTI-SDS project and its impact on the National Radon Control Strategy'. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 163, September, article number: 109210.
Journal Articles (pre-publication) (Carlier et al 2021)

CARLIER, J., DOYLE, M., FINN, J.A., Ó HUALLACHÁIN, D. & MORAN, J., 2021. 'A landscape classification map of Ireland and its potential use in national land use monitoring'. Journal of Environmental Management, 289 [Preprint], p. 112498. Available from:

Law Report

(King v. Martin 1999) King v. Martin [1999] 3 I.R. 297.

Lecturer Notes

(Hughes 2011) HUGHES, M., 2011. 'Exam techniques' [lecture notes]. 146223: Business law. Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology. Available from: [viewed 6 May 2021].

Lecturer Notes

(James 2007) JAMES, P., 2007. 'An introduction to law'. 14678: Corporate law. Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, unpublished.
Map (Ordnance Survey of Ireland 1999) Ordnance Survey of IRELAND, 1999.  Covering part of county Mayo, Sheet 30, 1:50,000. Dublin: Ordnance Survey of Ireland. (Discovery Series).
Market Research Report (Online Database)

(Mintel 2022)

MINTEL, 2022. Supermarket Retailing - Brand vs Own-label - Ireland - 2022. Available from: [Viewed 17 January 2023].

Music (Kodaline 2020)

KODALINE 2020. ‘Say something’. One day at a time. Available from: [Viewed 7 May 2021].


(Fiche or Film)
(O’Donovan 1959)

O’Donovan, J., 1959.  Letters from John O’Donovan to James Hardiman [Microfilm].  Dublin: National University of Ireland. 

Newspaper Article

(Burns 2021) BURNS, S., 2021. 'College student's sneaker cleaning business is a runner'. The Irish Times. 30 March, p. 3.

Newspaper Article

(Murphy 2021)

MURPHY, P., 2021. 'Ireland’s sculptures: Where are the women?'. The Irish Times. 21 April. Available from: [Viewed 25 May 2021].

Podcast (Finnegan 2021)

FINNEGAN, K., 2021. Listen: Reaction - Salthill Sunday's [Podcast]. Available from: [Viewed 25 May 2021].

Radio Programme (online) (Liveline 2021)

Liveline, 2021 RTE Radio 1. 24 May 13:45. Available from: [Viewed 25 May 2021].

Recorded Lectures (Doyle 2021)

Doyle, M. (2021).’ Communication through body language’ [Recorded lecture]. 2021-12345: Communication Skills. Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology. 10 May. Available from: [viewed 10 May 2021].

Standard (National Standards Authority of Ireland 2005) National Standards Authority of Ireland, 2005. ISO 9000:2005: Quality management systems: fundamentals and vocabulary. Dublin: NSAI.

Statute or

(Family Leave and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 2021) Family Leave and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 2021 (No. 4). Dublin: Irish Stationery Office.
Thesis (Acampora 2017)

ACAMPORA, H., 2017. Interactions between seabirds and pollution in Irish waters. Ph.D. Thesis,  Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology. Available from: [viewed 19 April 2021].

TikTok (Tolu_Ibixx 2021)

TOLU_IBIXX, 2021. Dublin TikTokers with Nigerian heritage do hilarious take on accent challenge [TIkTok]. 15 April. Available from: [Viewed 5 May 2021].

TV Programme (Síle Seoige: Deireadh Tochta 2021) Síle Seoige: Deireadh Tochta.  2021. TG4. 7 April: 20.00.
TV Episode In the episode Ennis to Kilkee (2021), Enda travels …. ‘Iarnród Enda’.  2021. Ennis to Kilkee, Series 1, episode 3. RTE 1, 19 April, 20.30.


(Nolan 2021)

NOLAN, B., 2021. Pretty pastel swirls grace the sky as #twilight subsumes the #sunset, lifting yellow, blue, cream, ochre, and violet hues off the artist’s palette, creating Mother Nature’s spring wardrobe, this evening at Barna [Twitter]. 7 April. Available from: [Viewed 6 May 2021].

Video (ATU Channel 2021)

ATU CHANNEL, 2021. ATU Virtual Choir performs Bohemian Rhapsody [Online video]. 4 May. Available from: [Viewed 4 May 2021].

Webpage (Health Service Executive 2019) HEALTH SERVICE EXECUTIVE, 2019. Acne [Online]. Available from: [Viewed 25 May 2021].
Wikis (‘Greta Thunberg’ 2021).

'Greta Thunberg', 2021. Wikipedia. Available from: [Viewed 6 May 2021].