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Harvard Style

This guide shows how to use the Harvard style of referencing

One author:

Citation shows author’s surname and year of publication


2 authors:

Citation shows both authors’ surnames and year of publication


3 authors:

Citation shows all 3 surnames and year of publication


4 authors:

Write the first author's name in your in-text citation followed by ‘et al.’. Your reference list includes the names of all the authors.


Author has published more than one cited source in the same year:

these are distinguished by adding lower case letters (a,b,c, etc.) after the year and within the brackets:

Each citation should have a matching reference in the reference list.

Same author written in different years

If you need to refer to two or more sources by the same author in different years, there is no need to keep repeating the author's surname in the citation.

Include the surname and the oldest year first, then separate the other years by semicolons (;). The sources should be ordered by year of publication, with the oldest first.

You must include all of the sources separately in your reference list or bibliography.

Source written by 2 authors with the same surname in the same year

If two or more sources have authors with the same surname and were written in the same year, they should be distinguished by including the authors' initials in the relevant citations.

Author unknown:

If there is no named author, use the name of the organisation. 


If the organisation is known by abbreviations, always give the name in full the first time their work is cited. The abbreviations can be used in subsequent citations.


If the author's name is unknown, you should give the title of the source.


If the work is a journal or newspaper article, use the name of the journal or newspaper.