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Harvard Style

This guide shows how to use the Harvard style of referencing


Tables usually show numerical values or text and are almost always characterized by a row-column structure. Any type of illustration other than a table is referred to as a figure.

Tables must be identified with the word "Table" and include a title and source.  As with figures, there are 3 elements to include:

  1. Caption
  2. In-text sentence referring to the table by number
  3. Reference in the Reference List

If you are writing a thesis with a lot of tables, they should be referenced in a List of Tables.  In a shorter assignment, where you might have included only one or two tables, you can reference them in your bibliography or reference list.


For a table, the number and title by which it can be identified are written above the fields of data. However, the actual source citation is placed  beneath the table in the same way as a graph or figure.


Table 1: Body Mass Index

(SourceBMI Calculator 2022)


In-Text Citations


  • Make specific reference to each table. Do not assume that the reader will make the necessary connection between the text and the table. Write something about each table.

                Ex: Each sample tested positive for the three nutrients (see Table 2).

  • Refer to each table in the text by its number (e.g. Table 5).
  • Remember to guide the reader in interpreting the information in the table. What does the table show? What specific point are you making?

Reference List


Tables reproduced or adapted from books or book chapters

A reference within the text to a table, graph, diagram, etc. taken from a source should include the author, date and page number in brackets to enable the reader to identify the data.



If the table is altered in any way from the original source, add 'Modified from source'.


Table 7: Problem-solving strategies

(Source: Lazzara 2021, p. 542). CC BY 4.0.


In-Text Citation


Entry in the Reference List

Tables reproduced or adapted from Articles


If the source is from a journal article (print or electronic) or from a web document with page numbers, add the page number to the in-text citation.

If the figure is altered in any way from the original source, add 'Modified from source'.

(Modified from source: Central Statistics Office 2021)




Table 2: Survey of colours used by students in Powerpoint slides
Colour Frequency Percentage
White 41 33.07
Black 33 26.61
Blue 18 14.52
Yellow 12 9.68
Grey 7 5.65
Red 6 4.84
Green 6 4.84
Orange 1 0.81

(Source: Flanagan 2022, p. 5). Reproduced with permission from XYZ Publishers.


In-Text Citation


Entry in the Reference List

Tables reproduced from websites


The source of the table below is a webpage, so page numbers are not included in the caption underneath the table.

If the table is taken from a web document that has page numbers, include them after the date.

If the table has been copied from a source, then you have amended it, add ‘amended from’ in the caption underneath (e.g. Amended from Source: Smith 2022).


Table 3: House Insurance Quotations 2022
Company Price 2022 Price 2021 Percentage Change
Company A 375.74 385.24 0.98
Company B 401.3 384.02 1.05
Company C 322.31 531.07 0.61
Company D 436.9 497.15 0.88
Company E 701.48 382.96 1.83

(Source: Smith 2022). Reproduced with permission from ABC Ireland.


In-Text Citation


Entry in the Reference List