Skip to Main Content

Harvard Style

This guide shows how to use the Harvard style of referencing

Use the abbreviations p. for a single page (e.g. p. 10) and pp. for a page range (e.g. pp. 11-12).

Citation when page numbers are not available

If a source contains no page numbers, such as a webpage or online newspaper articles, do not include a page number in the relevant reference entries.

For direct quotations from a source without page numbers, use the major sections, headings or chapters and paragraph numbers.


You should cite album tracks or times, video frames or times, or other specific points on a larger piece of work in the same way:


Time should be in the 24-hour clock in the format hh:mm: