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Harvard Style

This guide shows how to use the Harvard style of referencing

Reference Lists and Bibliographies


Reference List

A reference list usually appears at the end of your assignment. This includes all the references that you have cited in your document.


A Bibliography is sometimes also used. This can contain references that you have consulted during the course of your research, but not actually cited in the text of your assignment. These reference sources may be of interest to the reader. This is usually for larger documents such as theses or books.

Layout of Reference List in Harvard Style

  • Arrange reference entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author or organisational name, or by the first word of the title if there is no author. Ignore the words A, An, and the when alphabetising by title.


  • Use only the initial(s) of the author’s christian name.


  • Titles should have minimal capitalisation. So only capitalise the first letter of the first word and all proper nouns. Subtitles should be lower case except for all proper nouns.


  • Journal titles should use capitalisation of each word in the title


  • Book titles and Journal titles are italicised


  • Place of publication: use only the first city when there are multiple places of publication listed.


If a publication place is little known or shares its name with a town in another country, you can add the state or country.


BAKER, M.J. & SAREN, M. (EDS.), 2010. Marketing Theory: A Student Text [Online]. 2nd ed. London: Sage Publications Ltd. Available from:  [Viewed 15 April 2021].

BERINATO, S., 2021. 'Banks with More Women on Their Boards Commit Less Fraud'. Harvard Business Review, 99 (3), May/June, pp. 32-33.

CARPENTER, C. & DALY, J., 2019. 'Creating an Employment Collaborative'. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation [Online], 50 (3), pp. 331-338. DOI: 10.3233/JVR-191015.

CARSWELL, S., 2021. 'Ryan calls for focus on mental health'. The Irish Times. 2 March, p. 3.

DAWSON, P., 2020. Defending Assessment Security in a Digital World: Preventing E-Cheating and Supporting Academic Integrity in Higher Education [Online]. London: Routledge.  

EXCLER, J.-L., PRIVOR-DUMM, L. & KIM, J.H., 2021. 'Supply and delivery of vaccines for global health'. Current Opinion in Immunology [Online], 71, August, pp. 13-20.

GIBNEY, J., 2017. Dublin: a new illustrated history. Cork: The Collins Press.

HEALTH SERVICE EXECUTIVE, 2021. Psoriasis [Online]. Available from: [Viewed 19 April 2021].

IRELAND, DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE, 2021. Annual Report on Public Debt in Ireland 2020 [Online]. Dublin: Stationery Office. Available from: [Viewed 21 April 2021].

LOWMAN, R., 2019. 'Ethics and Assessment Centres'. In: SCHLEBUSCH, S. & ROODT, G. (eds.), Assessment  Centres : Unlocking People Potential for Growth. 2nd ed. Randburg: KR Publishing, pp. 61-76.

ODIO, M.A., 2021. 'The Role of Time in Building Sport Management Theory'. Journal of Global Sport Management, 6 (1), pp. 70-86.

RYANAIR-HOLDINGS PLC, 2020. Ryanair Holdings plc Annual Report 2020 [Online]. Available from: [Viewed 23 April 2021].

TOURISM IRELAND, n.d. Emerging Markets [Online]. Available from: [Viewed 19 April 2021].